It was at the 28th Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol that negotiators from 197 countries signed the Agreement Amending the Montreal Protocol. This happened in Kigali, which is how the name Kigali Agreement was born. This agreement required countries to reduce the production of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) by about 80-85% by 2045. The reference levels of different countries were different. As a result of this leak, the global average temperature would rise by only 0.5 degrees by 2100. Thus, the Kigali Agreement is an amendment to the Montreal Protocol. The Kigali Amendment is a 2016 global compact under the Montreal Protocol to phase out climate-warming HFCs over the next few decades. Gina McCarthy and John Kerry both helped negotiate the deal, which the U.S. signed in 2016 but has yet to ratify.
Amendments to the Montreal Protocol typically require “deliberation and approval” by the Senate to be ratified, making today`s announcement an important step in the establishment of the United States. correctly in the agreement. Under the amendment, all countries will gradually reduce HFCs by more than 80% over the next 30 years and replace them with more environmentally friendly alternatives. A certain group of developed countries will begin to disappear gradually in 2019. Several developing countries will freeze HFC consumption in 2024, followed by other countries in 2028. The exit schedule is described in detail here. The amendment also includes agreements on HFC destruction technologies, data reporting requirements and provisions for capacity building in developing countries. [UNEP press release] The Montreal Protocol was originally created to preserve and restore the ozone layer, and it worked.  The Protocol was an agreement between the participating countries on the phase-out of certain ozone-depleting gases.
HFCs have been used to replace the substances banned in this agreement because they have no effect on ozone. However, HFCs are powerful greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change, so this amendment adds HFCs to the list of chemicals that countries promise to phase out. More than 120 countries have already ratified the Kigali Amendment. Ratification by the United States will pave the way for similar actions by China, India and other major economies that are already making progress in their domestic policies but have not yet been ratified. Several of these countries were naturally waiting for a signal that the United States would move forward with the agreement; The United States was a leading proponent of a global phase-out of HFCs in the years leading up to the Kigali Amendment, and its continued leadership could not be more important. The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol is an international agreement to progressively reduce the consumption and production of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). It is a legally binding agreement that aims to establish rights and obligations under international law.  Article 5 of the Montreal Protocol establishes separate standards for developing and non-developing countries.  Whether a country was classified as a developing or non-developing country depended on the individual economic conditions at the time of the agreement or the outstanding special requests.
 As the Protocol was developed in the 1980s and the economic situation of countries has changed, the Kigali Amendment created three updated groups to comply with the additional conditions.  The need for the amendment stems from the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which controls ozone-depleting substances. With the use of HFCs as an alternative to ozone-depleting substances in refrigeration equipment, their role in warming the atmosphere has become a bigger problem. In 2016, the Parties to the Montreal Protocol adopted the HFCs Agreement at the 28th Meeting of the Parties (MOP 28) in Kigali, Rwanda. Governments agreed that it would enter into force on 1 January 2019, provided that at least 20 Parties to the Montreal Protocol have ratified it. On the 17th. In November 2017, Sweden and Trinidad and Tobago deposited their instruments of ratification, exceeding the required threshold. In the past, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were used in these applications, but the harmful effect of these gases on the ozone layer was discovered in the 1970s. Paul J. Crutzen, Mario Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1995.
 The Montreal Protocol, which was signed by many States in 1987 and entered into force in 1989, decided to phase out the FCW. The use of HFCs then developed as a replacement. The Biden administration`s decision shows how serious it is to realize the enormous climate benefits that the Kigali Amendment can bring. The global implementation of Kigali can prevent the use of HFCs of up to 70 billion tons of carbon dioxide by 2050 and prevent global warming of up to half a degree Celsius this century. (i) The national hydrofluorocarbon phase-down strategy, in line with India`s phase reduction schedule, will be developed after necessary consultation with all industry stakeholders by 2023. . In a guest article published on the SDG Knowledge Hub on 1 January 2019, Tina Birmpili, Executive Secretary of the Ozone Secretariat, called the Kigali Amendment a resolution “we cannot afford to break”. He reported ratifications from 65 countries registered as of 21 December 2018, and more are expected, and said the parties had put in place practical arrangements for the implementation of the amendment. See frequently asked questions on phasing out under the Kigali Amendment. In an effort to protect the climate and the ozone layer, more than 170 countries agreed to amend the Protocol at the 28th Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer in Kigali, Rwanda, in October 2016. The Kigali Amendment aims to phase out hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) by reducing their production and consumption.
As they have no effect on ozone depletion, HFCs are currently used as a substitute for hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), but are potent greenhouse gases. With the Kigali Amendment, the Montreal Protocol will be an even more powerful tool against global warming. The amendment will enter into force on 1 January 2019, provided that it has been ratified by at least 20 Parties. The goal is to reduce HFC consumption by more than 80% by 2047. .